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Note on Basal Cell Carcinoma: its Cause, Symptom and Treatment

Perspective - Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology (2022)

Note on Basal Cell Carcinoma: its Cause, Symptom and Treatment

Arvind Gokul*
 
Department of Histology, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain
 
*Corresponding Author:
Arvind Gokul, Department of Histology, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain, Email: [email protected]

Received: 02-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. EJMJIH-22-56182; Editor assigned: 04-Mar-2022, Pre QC No. EJMJIH-22-56182 (PQ); Reviewed: 18-Mar-2022, QC No. EJMJIH-22-56182; Revised: 23-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. EJMJIH-22-56182 (R); Published: 30-Mar-2022

Introduction

The most prevalent type of skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma (also known as basal cell skin cancer). About 8 out of 10 skin cancers are basal cell carcinomas (also called basal cell cancers). These cancers begin in the basal cell layer, which is the epidermis’ bottom layer. This is a type of skin cell that creates new skin cells as the old ones die off. Basal cell carcinoma usually shows as a small, translucent lump on the skin, but it can also occur in different ways. Sun-exposed areas, such as the face, head, and neck, are the most common sites for these cancers to develop. They have a modest growth rate. A basal cell cancer that has spread to other places of the body is extremely unusual. Basal cell cancer, on the other hand, can spread to surrounding locations and infect the bone or other tissues beneath the skin if left untreated. Basal cell carcinoma can return (recur) in the same location on the skin if it is not entirely eradicated. People who have experienced basal cell skin cancers are more prone to develop new ones in other parts of their bodies.

Causes

Basal cell carcinoma is caused by a mutation in the DNA of one of the skin’s basal cells. Basal cells are found near the bottom of the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. The creation of new skin cells is controlled by basal cells. Older skin cells are pushed toward the skin’s surface, where they die and are sloughed off, as new skin cells emerge. The process of creating new skin cells is regulated by the DNA of basal cells. The instructions that inform a cell what to do are stored in DNA. Even when the basal cell should be dying, the mutation instructs it to continue replicating and developing. The abnormal cells that accumulate over time may develop into a malignant tumour that appears as a skin lesion.

Ultraviolet light and other causes: UV (ultraviolet) radiation, which is found in sunshine as well as commercial tanning lamps and tanning beds, is thought to cause much of the DNA damage in basal cells. Sun exposure, on the other hand, cannot explain skin cancers that grow on skin that is not normally exposed to sunlight. Other factors may have a role in the development and progression of basal cell carcinoma, and the exact cause may in some cases not be clear.

Symptoms of basal cell carcinoma

A change in the skin, such as a growth or an unhealed lesion, is a sign of basal cell carcinoma. These skin alterations (lesions) are frequently characterized by one or more of the following characteristics:

• A shiny, skin-colored protrusion that is translucent, allowing light to pass through. On white skin, the bump can seem pearly white or pink. The bump appears dark or glossy black on brown and black skin. On brown and black skin, tiny blood vessels may be visible; however they may be difficult to notice. It’s possible that the bump will bleed and scab over.

• A brown, black, or blue lesion with a slightly elevated, translucent border or a lesion with dark dots.

• A raised edge on a flat, scaly patch. These patches might get fairly huge over time.

• A scar-like white, waxy lesion with no clearly defined border.

Treatment of BCC

BCC is treated by eliminating it from the body. Treatment options are determined by a variety of factors, including the patient’s health and age, the tumor’s location, and the cancer’s size and kind. Treatment can take a variety of forms:

• Scratching with a curette, a tool that ends in a ring or a spoon, and then burning with a specific electric needle, the procedure is known as electrodessication and curettage.

• Mohs surgery (Mohs micrographic surgery): This is a highly specialized method. After removing the visible cancer, the doctor begins cutting around the edges. The tissues are examined during the surgery until no more cancer cells are found in tissues around the wound. If necessary, a skin graft or flap might be applied to help the wound heal.

• Excisional surgery: The growth and a bit of surrounding skin are removed with a scalpel.

• Freezing (cryotherapy or cryosurgery)

• Applying chemotherapy medication to the skin

• Using lasers

• Using blue light and a light-sensitive agent applied to the skin

• Using radiation (rare)

Copyright: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.