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Current State of Cell Treatment and Stem Cell Therapy in Immunology

Commentary - Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology (2022)

Current State of Cell Treatment and Stem Cell Therapy in Immunology

Binita Reddy*
 
Department of Immunology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, India
 
*Corresponding Author:
Binita Reddy, Department of Immunology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India,

Received: 29-Dec-2021, Manuscript No. EJMJIH-22-52146; Editor assigned: 31-Dec-2021, Pre QC No. EJMJIH-22-52146 (PQ); Reviewed: 14-Jan-2022, QC No. EJMJIH-22-52146; Revised: 19-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. EJMJIH-22-52146 (R); Published: 26-Jan-2022

Description

Cell Treatment (CT) is the transplantation of human cells to repair damaged tissue and/or cells. A wide range of cells might be utilized as part of a therapy or treatment for a number of diseases and disorders thanks to new technologies, inventive products, and infinite imagination. Hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem cells, skeletal muscle stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, lymphocytes, dendritic cells and pancreatic islet cells are some of the cells that could be employed.

T-cell therapy is a sort of treatment in which a patient’s T cells (a type of immune system cell) are genetically modified to attack cancer cells in the lab. T-cells are extracted from the blood of a patient. The gene for a particular receptor that attaches to a specific protein on the cancer cells of the patient is then introduced to T-cells in the lab. A Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) is a unique type of receptor. CAR T-cells are generated in large numbers in the lab and then infused into the patient. CAR T-cell therapy is used to treat specific types of blood malignancies and it is also being researched for other cancers. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy is another name for it.

Various cell types will be developed into treatments as innovative cell therapies and examined for possible uses while the research is on-going. The most common cell treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (also known as bone marrow transplant), which is used to treat a range of blood malignancies and hematologic disorders. Possible applications of cell therapies include treating cancers, autoimmune disease, urinary problems and infectious disease, rebuilding damaged cartilage in joints, repairing spinal cord injuries, improving a weakened immune system, and helping patients with neurological disorders.

Adoptive cell therapy, also known as cellular immunotherapy is a type of therapy that utilizes the cells of immune system kill cancer.

• Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) Therapy.

• Engineered T-Cell Receptor (TCR) Therapy.

• Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapy.

• Natural Killer (NK) Cell Therapy.

Cell treatments could be used to treat cancers, autoimmune diseases, urinary difficulties and infectious diseases, as well as to restore damaged cartilage in joints, heal spinal cord injuries, strengthen a weakened immune system and assist individuals with neurological abnormalities.

The use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition is known as stem-cell therapy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only established stem cell therapy as of 2016. The cells are normally obtained from bone marrow transplantation, although they can also be obtained from umbilical cord blood. The development of various sources for stem cells, as well as the use of stem-cell therapy for neurological illnesses and conditions including diabetes and heart disease, is currently under way.

Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to make undeveloped cells utilizing substantial cell atomic exchange and their utilization of strategies to make actuated pluripotent undifferentiated organisms. This debate is regularly connected with fetus removal governmental issues and to human cloning. Also, endeavors to showcase medicines in light of relocate of put away umbilical cord blood have been disputable.

Copyright: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.