Opinion Article - Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology (2022)
Brief Note on LeukaemiaGowtham Singh*
Gowtham Singh, Department of Pathology, University of Texas, Austin, USA, Email: [email protected]
Received: 01-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. EJMJIH-22-60130; Editor assigned: 04-Apr-2022, Pre QC No. EJMJIH-22-60130 (PQ); Reviewed: 18-Apr-2022, QC No. EJMJIH-22-60130; Revised: 25-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. EJMJIH-22-60130 (R); Published: 02-May-2022
Leukaemia is a term used to describe cancers of the blood cells as a whole. The kind of leukaemia is determined by the type of cancerous blood cell and how rapidly or slowly it grows. The most prevalent cancer in individuals over 55 is leukaemia, but it is also the most common disease in children under the age of 15.
The symptoms of leukaemia differ based on the type of leukaemia. Some of the most frequent signs and symptoms of leukaemia include:
• Fever or chills
• Consistent exhaustion, weakness
• Frequent or severe infections
• Weight loss without trying
• Swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen
• Easy bleeding or bruising
• Excessive perspiration, especially at night
• Bone ache or tenderness
• Tiny red patches on your skin (petechiae)
The first classification is based on how rapidly leukaemia progresses
• Acute leukaemia is a type of leukaemia that develops quickly. The aberrant blood cells in acute leukaemia are immature blood cells (blasts). They are unable to carry out their regular functions and reproduce rapidly, causing the condition to rapidly worsen. Acute leukaemia necessitates prompt and intensive therapy.
• Chronic leukemias can take many different forms. Some cause the production of too many cells, while others cause the production of too few cells. Chronic leukaemia involves more mature blood cells. These blood cells reproduce or grow at a slower rate and can function normally for a short period of time. Some types of chronic leukaemia have no symptoms at first and might go unreported or untreated for years.
The second classification method is based on the type of white blood cell affected
• Lymphocytic leukaemia is a type of leukaemia that affects lymphocytes. The lymphoid cells (lymphocytes) that make up lymphoid or lymphatic tissue are affected by this type of leukaemia. Your immune system is made up of lymphatic tissue.
• Myelogenous leukaemia (my-uh-LOHJ-uh-nus) myeloid cells are affected by this form of leukaemia. Myeloid cells create red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelet-producing cells.
Leukemia comes in a variety of forms
• Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common kind of leukaemia (ALL). In young children, this is the most frequent kind of leukaemia. ALL can happen to adults as well.
• Acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) is a type of leukaemia that affects the blood cells (AML). AML is a kind of leukaemia that is quite frequent. It can affect both children and adults. In adults, AML is the most frequent kind of acute leukaemia.
• CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia) is a type of leukkaemia that affects the lymph node . You may feel OK for years without having treatment if you have, the most prevalent chronic adult leukaemia.
• Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (CML) is a type of leukaemia that affects the blood (CML). Adults are mostly affected by this form of leukaemia. Before beginning a phase in which the leukaemia cells develop more quickly, a person with CML may have few or no symptoms for months or years.
• There are others, Hairy cell leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative diseases are examples of uncommon kinds of leukaemia.
Risk factors of leukaemia
Some factors that may raise your chances of getting leukaemia include:
A history of cancer treatment People who have received specific types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other cancers are more likely to develop leukaemia.
Genetic conditions: Genetic defects appear to play a role in leukaemia development. Down syndrome and other genetic abnormalities are linked to an increased risk of leukaemia.
Chemicals that have been ingested: Chemicals like benzene, which is found in gasoline and is utilised in the chemical industry, have been associated to an elevated risk of certain types of leukaemia.
Smoking: Acute myelogenous leukaemia is increased by smoking cigarettes.
Leukemia in the family: Your risk of developing leukaemia may be enhanced if members of your family have been diagnosed with the disease.
Although there is no known way to prevent leukaemia, avoiding cigarettes and pesticides and industrial pollutants may be beneficial.
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