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Brief Note on B Cells in Lymphocytes

Opinion Article - Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology (2022)

Brief Note on B Cells in Lymphocytes

Arona Kioko*
 
Department of Pathology, Pioneer International University, Nairobi, Kenya
 
*Corresponding Author:
Arona Kioko, Department of Pathology, Pioneer International University, Nairobi, Kenya, Email: [email protected]

Received: 28-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. EJMJIH-22-62789; Editor assigned: 05-May-2022, Pre QC No. EJMJIH-22-62789 (PQ); Reviewed: 23-May-2022, QC No. EJMJIH-22-62789; Revised: 01-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. EJMJIH-22-62789 (R); Published: 06-Jun-2022

Description

B cells are lymphocytes that are in charge of the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system. These white blood cells create antibodies, which play a key role in immunity. Each B cell contains a single circular nucleus. Antibodies, or Y-shaped chromosomes, are produced by the immune system in B cells to protect the body from foreign substances. B cell receptors are proteins on the surface of B cells that bind to a specific protein.

Antibodies are created when B cells bind to this protein, known as an antigen, and adhere to the antigen, preventing it from harming the body. The B cells then produce cytokines, which attract other immune cells. They also deliver antigens to T cells, which use their T cell receptors to recognise them. T cells eat the antigens and kill them.

B cell formation and commitment to the B cell lineage takes place in the foetal liver, before continuing in the bone marrow later in life. B cells are at the heart of the adaptive humoral immune system, allowing the production of antigen-specific immunoglobulin directed against invading pathogens. In the 1960s, Max Cooper demonstrated that surgical ablation of the Bursa of Fabricius (the primary location of B-cell development in birds) resulted in absolute abrogation of antibody production in irradiated chickens, revealing the involvement of B cells. In both adaptive and innate humoral immune responses, there are multiple distinct B-cell subsets that play various functions.

Pieces of infectious pathogens’ machinery can be seen on the surface of their cells as they enter the body, such as bacteria. Antigens are the parts that activate B lymphocytes when they come into contact with and recognise antigens.

On the surface of B cells are B cell receptors, which attach to certain antigens. Activation begins when the cell connects to the antigens. The use of Akadeum’s microbubble- based enrichment allows for the production of a highly pure population of B cells with BCR percentages that are identical to the beginning material. These receptors are not disturbed by the isolation process, and the isolated population is not skewed.

The structure of the antigens on B cells’ surfaces helps them distinguish pathogenic pathogens. The descendants of a single B cell make identical antibodies and recall the invader and antigens that contributed to their creation. The immune system is protected from a second attack because B cells make antibodies that neutralise the original antigen. B cell function is preserved when Akadeum’s microbubble-based enrichment is used, and isolated B cells keep their antigen-presenting capacity.

The separation of B cells from other cell types is known as B cell isolation. CD19 and CD20 are surface markers that identify B lymphocytes. B cells that have been activated become plasma cells, which release vast amounts of antibodies. The CD138 marker can be used to identify these activated B cells.

The use of Akadeum’s microbubble-based enrichment shows that B cells were not artificially stimulated by Akadeum isolation and retained their ability to differentiate into plasma cells, as seen by CD138 induction.

B cell isolation can be done in a variety of ways. Selection is one technique. Positive selection occurs when the elimination mechanism targets B cells and keeps them for further investigation. Negative selection, on the other side, occurs when other cell types are destroyed to leave the B cells alone. Another method is B cell depletion, which involves removing a single cell type from a biological sample—in this case, B cells.

A high B cell count can suggest a variety of problems in the human body:

• DiGeorge syndrome

• Multiple myeloma

• Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

• Blood cancer

A low B cell count could be a symptom of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or an immune-suppressing condition like HIV. In addition, a low lymphocyte count can produce lymphocytopenia (also known as lymphopenia).

Traditional separation procedures like magnetic beadbased sorting can be harsh on cells and give less-than-desirable results, yet studying B cell function and regulation demands a highly purified population of unmodified B cells.

Copyright: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.